A Comprehensive Bibliometric Analysis of fNIRS and fMRI Technology in Neuromarketing


  • Ahmed Alsharif Faculty of Azman Hashim International Business School, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia
  • Nor Zafir Md. Salleh Faculty of Azman Hashim International Business School, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia
  • Lina Pilelienė Faculty of Economics and Management, Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania




fNIRS, fMRI, bibliometric analysis, neuromarketing, consumer neuroscience, Scopus database.


The aim of this study is to perform a comprehensive bibliometric analysis of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) tools. To achieve this aim, we adopted the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) protocol and bibliometric analysis (VOSviewer) for extracting the relevant papers (articles and reviews) from the Scopus database between 2002 and 2022. A total of 86 papers were included in the analysis. The results showed an increasing trend in publications over the years—the top countries in terms of publication outcome were the United States, Germany, Spain, and Australia. The analysis also identified the most influential authors and institutions in the field. In addition, we analyzed the most frequently cited articles, journals, and keywords related to fNIRS and fMRI tools. This bibliometric analysis provides insights into the current state of research on fNIRS and fMRI tools. It also provides insights into the direction of future research in this field. In this study, we will provide general insights and details about current trends in neuromarketing research using fNIRS and fMRI.


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Alsharif, A. H., Md Salleh, N. Z., Baharun, R., & Alsharif, H. (2021a). Neuromarketing: Marketing research in the new millennium. Neuroscience Research Notes, 4(3), 27-35. http://dx.doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v4i3.79

Alsharif, A. H., Md Salleh, N. Z., Baharun, R., & Alsharif, H. (2021b). Neuromarketing: The popularity of the brain-imaging and physiological tools. Neuroscience Research Notes, 3(5), 13-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v3i5.80

Alsharif, A. H., Md Salleh, N. Z., Baharun, R., & Rami Hashem E, A. (2021c). Neuromarketing research in the last five years: A bibliometric analysis. Cogent Business & Management, 8(1), 1978620. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23311975.2021.1978620

Alsharif, A. H., Md Salleh, N. Z., Pilelienė, L., Abbas, A. F., & Ali, J. (2022a). Current Trends in the Application of EEG in Neuromarketing: A Bibliometric Analysis. Scientific Annals of Economics and Business, 69(3), 393-415. http://dx.doi.org/10.47743/saeb-2022-0020

Alsharif, A. H., NorZafir, M. S., Rohaizat, B., & Mehdi, S. (2020b). Neuromarketing approach: An overview and future research directions. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology, 98(7), 991-1001.

Alsharif, A. H., Salleh, N. Z. M., Abdullah, M., Khraiwish, A., & Ashaari, A. (2023a). Neuromarketing Tools Used in the Marketing Mix: A Systematic Literature and Future Research Agenda. SAGE Open, 13(1), 1-23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/21582440231156563

Alsharif, A. H., Salleh, N. Z. M., Ahmad, W. A. W., & Khraiwish, A. (2022b). Biomedical Technology in Studying Consumers’ Subconscious Behavior. International Journal of Online and Biomedical Engineering (iJOE), 18(8), 98-114. http://dx.doi.org/10.3991/ijoe.v18i08.31959

Alsharif, A. H., Salleh, N. Z. M., Al-Zahrani, S. A., & Khraiwish, A. (2022c). Consumer Behaviour to Be Considered in Advertising: A Systematic Analysis and Future Agenda. Behavioral Sciences (Basel, Switzerland), 12(12), 472. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/bs12120472

Alsharif, A. H., Salleh, N. Z. M., Alrawad, M., & Lutfi, A. (2023b). Exploring global trends and future directions in advertising research: A focus on consumer behavior. Current Psychology (New Brunswick, N.J.)(June 3), 1-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12144-023-04812-w

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Alsharif, A. H., Salleh, N. Z. M., Baharun, R., Hashem E, A. R., Mansor, A. A., Ali, J., & Abbas, A. F. (2021d). Neuroimaging Techniques in Advertising Research: Main Applications, Development, and Brain Regions and Processes. Sustainability (Basel), 13(11), 1-25. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/su13116488

Alsharif, A. H., Salleh, N. Z. M., Hashem E, A. R., Khraiwish, A., Putit, L., Arif, L. S. M., & Alsharif, H. (2023c). Exploring Factors Influencing Neuromarketing Implementation in Malaysian Universities: Barriers and Enablers. Sustainability (Basel), 15(5), 4603-4632. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/su15054603

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How to Cite

Alsharif, A., Md. Salleh, N. Z. ., & Pilelienė , L. . (2023). A Comprehensive Bibliometric Analysis of fNIRS and fMRI Technology in Neuromarketing. Scientific Annals of Economics and Business, 70(3), 459–472. https://doi.org/10.47743/saeb-2023-0031