IMPACT OF TELEWORK ON THE PERCEIVED WORK ENVIRONMENT OF OLDER WORKERS
Keywords:telework, senior work force, ICT, education in ICT, well-being, employer’s support
Telework has become a natural part of regular work life of employees who use the information communication technology (ICT). Telework has a potential to support postponing retirement for mental workers. The objective of this research was to find out interaction between senior employees’ teleworking and well-being. The main research question was – can telework improve elderly employees’ well-being? Over 100 respondents from different areas in mental work were involved in a quantitative survey. The results of a conducted survey showed that telework is exaggerated to some extent as teleworkers’ well-being (M=7.79; SD=1.28) does not diverge from non-teleworkers’ well-being (M=7.75; SD=1.40). However, telework can be neither underestimated nor taken as interchangeable with traditional work. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to telework as a different way of working with its specialties. Systematic approach to telework enables companies to employ elderly by providing diversity of work forms.JEL Codes - J14, J26, J28
Armstrong-Stassen, M., 2008. Human resource practices for mature workers — And why aren't employers using them? Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 46(3), 334-352. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1038411108091755
Arvola, R., 2006. Telework as a Solution for Senior Workforce: Research in Tallinn Univer¬sity of Technology. Tallinn University of Technology Working Papers in Economics, 142, 35-49.
Arvola, R., and Kristjuhan, U., 2015. Workload and health of older academic personnel using telework. Agronomy Research (Tartu), 13(3), 741-749.
Bandura, A., 1986. Social foundations of thought and action: a social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice- Hall.
Birdie, A. K., Jain, M., and Kulhari, S., 2015. Work stress, general well-being and coping strategies: A comparative study on medico couples. Indian Journal of Positive Psychology, 6(3), 288-290.
Burke, R. J., 2002. Organizational values, job experiences and satisfactions among managerial and professional women and men: Advantage men? Women in Management Review, 17(5), 228-236. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09649420210433184
Chan, S. C., and Lu, M. T., 2004. Understanding internet banking adoption and use behaviour: A Hong Kong perspective. Journal of Global Information Management, 12(3), 21-43. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4018/jgim.2004070102
Chen, Y. F., and Katz, J. E., 2009. Extending family to school life: College students' use of the mobile phone. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 67(2), 179-191. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhes.2008.09.002
Chmiel, N., 2008. An Introduction to Work and Organizational Psychology: A European Perspective: Wiley.
Chou, L. F., Chu, C. C., Yeh, H. C., and Chen, J., 2014. Work stress and employee well-being: The critical role of Zhong-Yong. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 17(2), 115-127. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajsp.12055
Coghill, R., 2001. Inappropriate measures. The Ecologist, 31(8), 28-29.
Compeau, D. R., and Higgins, S., 1995. Computer self-efficacy: Development of a measure and initial test. Management Information Systems Quarterly, 19(2), 189-211. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/249688
Cooper, D. R., and Schindler, P. S., 2006. Business Research Methods. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Dickinson, A., and Gregor, P., 2006. Computer use has no demonstrated impact on the well-being of older adults. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 64(8), 744-753. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhcs.2006.03.001
Digital Lifestyles: Adults aged 60 and over. 2009. from https://www.ofcom.org.uk/research-and-data/media-literacy-research/adults/digital-lifestyles-60
Eltayeb, S., Staal, J. B., Kennes, J., Lamberts, H. G. P., and A de Bie, R., 2007. Prevalence of complains of arm, neck and shoulder among computer office workers and psychometric evaluation of a risk factor questionnaire. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 8(68), 1-11. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2474-8-68
European Commission, 2001. Innovation policy in six candidate countries: the Challenges. In European Commission (Ed.).
Eyster, L., Johnson, R. W., and Toder, E., 2008. Current strategies to employ and retain older workers. Urban Institute, ian., 1-38. http://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/publication/31531/411626-Current-Strategies-to-Employ-and-Retain-Older-Workers.PDF.
Gaβner, K., and Conrad, M., 2010. ICT Enabled Independent Living for Elderly M. Conrad (Ed.) A status-quo analysis on products and the research landscape in the field of Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) in EU-27
Haddon, L., and Brynin, M., 2005. The character of telework and the characteristics of teleworkers. New Technology, Work and Employment, 20(1), 34-46. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-005X.2005.00142.X
Hart, T., Chaparro, B., and Halcomb, C., 2008. Evaluating websites for older adults: Adherence to senior-friendly guidelines and end-user performance. Behaviour & Information Technology, 27(3), 191-199. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01449290600802031
Ilmarinen, J., 2001. Aging workers. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 58(8), 546-552. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/oem.58.8.546
Ilmarinen, J., 2002. Promotion of work ability during aging. Avoiding aging catastrophe.
Kahn, R., and Byosiere, P., 1992. Stress in organizations. In M. D. Dunette and L. M. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology 3 (pp. 571-650). Palo Alto, USA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Kalman, B. A., and Grahn, R. E., 2004. Measuring salivary cortisol in the behavioural neuroscience laboratory. Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education, 2, A41-49.
Kooij, D., de Lange, A., Jansen, P., and Dikkers, J., 2008. Older workers' motivation to continue to work: Five meanings of age, a conceptual review. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 23(4), 364-394. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02683940810869015
Kurniawan, S., 2007. Mobile phone design for older persons. interactions, 14(4), 24-25. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1273961.1273979
Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs of the Czech Republic, 2008. Quality of life in old age. National programme of preparation for ageing for 1008-2012. Prague: MLSA.
Moeller, C., and Chung-Yan, G. A., 2013. Effects of social support on professors' work stress. International Journal of Educational Management, 27(3), 188-202. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09513541311306431
Munnell, A., Sass, S. A., and Soto, M., 2006. Employer attitudes towards older workers: Survey results. Center Retirement Research, 3(jun.), 1-14.
Näsman, O., 2011. Metal Age and Kiva-questionnaire. Assist in navigation towards well-being at work: Mediona OyAb.
Nilles, J. M., Carlson, F. R., Gray, P., and Hanneman, G. J., 1976. The telecommunications-transportation tradeoff: options for tomorrow. New York.
OECD, 2006. Ageing and Employment Policies. In OECD (Ed.), Live Longer, Work Longer (pp. 146). The Netherlands: OECD.
Oksman, V., 2006. Young people and seniors in Finnish mobile information society. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 2, 1-21. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5334/2006-3
Older people, technology and community. 2012. Independent Age. Supporting older people at home. from http://www.independentage.org.uk
Patrick, K., Griswold, W. G., Raab, F., and Intille, S. S., 2008. Health and the mobile phone. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 35(2), 177-181. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2008.05.001
Patrickson, M., 2002. Teleworking potential employment opportunities for older workers? International Journal of Manpower, 23(8), 704-715. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01437720210453902
Plaza, I., Martin, L., Martin, S., and Medrano, C., 2011. Mobile applications in an aging society: Status and trends. Journal of Systems and Software, 84(11), 1977-1988. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2011.05.035
Raja, A., Tuulik, V., Lossmann, E., and Meister, A., 1996. Neural network approach to classify the functional state CNS in case of neurotoxic diseases. Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing, 34, 241-242.
Reinhold, K., Pille, V., Tuulik, V. R., Tuulik, V., and Tint, P., 2014. Prevention of MSDs and Psychological stress at computer-equipped workplaces. Revista de la Universidad Industrial de Santader. Salud, 46(3), 221-226.
Repacholi, M. H., 2001. Health risks from the use of mobile phones. Toxicology Letters, 120(1-3), 323-331. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4274(01)00285-5
Sanchez, A. M., Perez, M. P., Carnicer, P. L., and Jimenez, M. J. V., 2007. Teleworking and workplace flexibility: A study of impact on firm performance. Personnel Review, 36(1), 42-64. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00483480710716713
Scott, E., 2014. What is Psychosocial Stress? . Stress Management. from http://stress.about.com/od/stressmanagementglossary/g/What-Is-Psychosocial-Stress.htm
Selwyn, N., 2004. The information aged: A qualitative study of older adults' use of information and communications technology. Journal of Aging Studies, 18(4), 369-384. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaging.2004.06.008
Sharit, J., Czaja, S. J., Hernandez, M. A., and Sankaran, N. N., 2009. The employability of older workers as teleworkers: An appraisal of issues and an empirical study. Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing, 19(5), 457-477. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hfm.20138
Social Insurance Board, 2015. official webpage. from http://www.sotsiaalkindlustusamet.ee/deferred-old-age-pension-2/
Teichmann, M., Spector, P. E., Cooper, C. L., and Sparks, K., 2004. Managerial stress in Estonia. International Journal of Psychology, 39(5-6), 308.
Tint, P., Meigas, K., Tuulik, V., Pille, V., Oha, K., Reinhold, K., . . . Lauri, M., 2014. Prevention of physiological and psychological stress at computer-equipped workplaces. Paper presented at the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Europe Chapter 2013 Annual Conference www.hfes-europe.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/Tint.pdf.
Tishman, F. M., Looy, S. V., and Bruyère, S. M., 2012. Employer strategies for responding to an aging workforce. from www.ntarcenter.org
Wagner, N., Hassanein, K., and Head, M., 2010. Computer use by older adults: A multi-disciplinary review. Computers in Human Behavior, 20(5), 870-882. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2010.03.029
Walter, A., 2004. Quality of life in old age in Europe. Growing older in Europe Retrieved from http://era-age.group.shef.ac.uk/professor-alan-walker.html
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2017 SCIENTIFIC ANNALS OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
All accepted papers are published on an Open Access basis.
The Open Access License is based on the Creative Commons license.
The non-commercial use of the article will be governed by the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License as currently displayed on https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0
Under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives license, the author(s) and users are free to share (copy, distribute and transmit the contribution) under the following conditions:
1. they must attribute the contribution in the manner specified by the author or licensor,
2. they may not use this contribution for commercial purposes,
3. they may not alter, transform, or build upon this work.