This paper analyses the returns to education in Ecuador based on cross-sectional data collected by a National Survey at the individual- and canton-levels in 2005 and 2015. The multilevel analysis provides the methodological framework that allows capturing the regional peculiarities of data as well as addressing the high regional economic heterogeneity. The two level- random intercept and random slope models are used to examine the impact of individual-level and canton-level characteristics on the labour income. In subsidiary, the paper explains the proportion of variance in individual- level income that is explained by canton- level characteristics.


regional heterogeneity, return to education, variance

JEL Codes

I26; J31;

Full Text:



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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/saeb-2016-0133


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